Cryogenic Carbon Capture uses a patented Desublimating Heat Exchanger, which can form solids without fouling the heat exchange surface.
SES has patented three types of desublimating heat exchangers:
The bubbling desublimating heat exchanger, or "bubbler", is used in the small pilot demonstrations of the CCC-ECL and CCC-CFG processes. Each bubbler regularly captures 95–99% of the entering CO2. The bubbler is capable of continuous carbon capture without any fouling.
The spray tower is similar to the bubbler, but more suitable for larger pilot and full scale installations. Small spray towers have been tested successfully in SES' lab.
The fluidized bed desublimating heat exchanger could potentially be the most efficient of the three types of desublimating heat exchangers, especially at the full scale. Size constraints have prevented SES' small-scale prototypes from reaching the same performance as the other two heat exchangers. However, its potential benefits at full scale, not the least of which is the incredibly high heat exchange capability for its size, make it an ideal candidate for further development and testing.